Art & Architecture: Paint in 19 Century

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Art & Architecture: Paint in 19 Century


Art is one of the most famous ways of communicating messages among other ways. This is because it has a long lasting impression and has pure visibility of what the artists wanted to communicate. When an artists curves a stone or a wood or when another one paints a portrait of something well known in the world, this representation becomes a long lasting picture and the impression can cut across the centuries. The kind of art that existed in the past centuries; for example, the 13th century is still preserved and it could be the major contributor to regular improvements to the modern arts. For example, a panting of a visible structure in the 19th century may provoke particular feelings and making the modern artists or the painters of the 21st century to have a view of improving on the same. Art is said to be one of the most impressive contributors to making of messages especially the messages that are meant to last for centuries.

Painting is one of the abstract art or an art that uses visual language and more so because it uses color and line in creating a kind of composition which exists with some pedigree of independence. It has visual reference and in this discussion, the center is on this analysis of painting of the 19th century on how it underpins the logic of perspective. Critically, the 19th century painting was developed by three major developments or art movements known as the romanticism, expressionism and impressionism. This largely brought in the artistic independence for all the artists in this century, which also contributed a lot to the overall development of the art running to the present century. As would be discussed, the expressionist, the impressionists and the Romanists are to be praised for the kind of painting that they brought in the 19th century, and as can be compared to the 18th century, a major move is noted. The 19th century painting is regarded as the real ground for painting in the whole world or as the benchmark to art as a whole.

The Painting of the 19th Century. As analyzed earlier, the painting of the 19th century is characterized with three major movements namely, the expressionism, impressionism and romanticism, and it has been said to be the ground mark for the modern kind of painting. Painting is one of the visual forms of art and its way of communication is unmistakable as it is clear and has long lasting impact. The painting of the 19th century is a strong ground of what happens today, and in essence, this kind of painting has riveted to modern way of communication. For example, some people opt not to write long sentences to have their messages go across to their audience, but just use painting to mean what they say. Rooting this from the above-mentioned movements, it is clear then that everything we have today is because of hard work on the part of the artists who had their work during the 19th century as well as the artists or the painters who took after these famous artists. The artists who would be discussed later in the paper borrowed greatly from the previous century and notably, this have been a trend since the 13th century when real kind of painting started to show up. Essentially, it can be said that painting as one form of art is ranked top as a communication tool and to some extent, it overshadows the other forms of communication quoted to be most significant namely writing and speaking.

In major countries, some departments are solely dedicated for showing how important painting is. For example, in the European countries, there are specialist departments meant to extend the work of the artists and preserving the work of the painters in their countries. The sales of paintings are huge and this shows the high association of painting to communication in the world. As noted earlier, the painting of the 19th century borrowed heavily from the painting of the 18th century and more so, the painting of the 19th century contributed a lot to the paintings of the 20th century and to some extent the modern kind of painting of the 21st century. Therefore, this paper would compare how the paintings of the 18th and 21st centuries are relevant or comparable to the paintings of the 19th century and essentially show how there is a transition mark from one century to another in regard to paintings in the world. However, what are of most importance are the movements that existed in this century, which would in essence give way to the modern kind of painting.

Development Movements in 19th Century Painting

Romanticism. Romantic era is said to be an era of the literary, artistic and intellectual movement and this originated in the second half of 18th century; however, this was to gain much importance in the 19th century and at times it is said to be a revolt. It gained its strength from the industrial revolution that happened in the 18th century in Europe. From its name, it can be said that romanticism as one of the movements in art and painting in specific underpins the need for aesthetic value in everything that is done, and from what would be seen. The 19th century is the benchmark for a kind of beautiful value for paintings and art in general. In the beginning of the 18th century all the way to the 19th century, there was a new form of romanticism and this was not only in the art but also in any kind of communication; and it is here that even writing evolved to contain aesthetic.

Romanticism started just like an intellectual movement as well as artistic improvement, but in due time, it was to become as one of the ways of making communication become more fruitful or make it become as one of the most celebrated way of passing information across to the people. Romanticism comes from the word romance, which has an aesthetic value attached. When people become happy about something, they are associated. Therefore, here, it can be said that romanticism is one of the ways of communicating to the publics in a most important way. It spells here that the painting that has romanticism in it has some fascination or when viewed by people, there is a strong attachment to the people. Therefore, when painting of the modern or at least from the 19th century is made in a way that there is human attachment, people get to value it and have some importance relevance from it. The artists of the 18th century as well as the 19th century were fascinated by the general human nature to come up with their paintings, and generally, people would take one picture and paint it in a way that everybody appreciates or develops actual attachment. It is one way of giving the people what they want, and when a picture such as of a president or a famous person is painted in a way it is appreciated, this makes the people who adore the person get special attachment. This was the main aim of the persons who developed the romanticism in the 19th century.

Expressionism. One major aim of any kind of art is to make a form of expression or communication, and therefore, when art is put as an expressionist, it means that it has a particular message for the persons who are viewing it. Expressionism developed during the 19th century, it has come all the way to the 20th century, and was Marjory opposed to the kind of academic standards that was seen to have prevailed in the larger part of the Europe. Expressionism has come to have significance in art and even though the subjects of expressionists were seen to be distorted, they still played a part and they are up to the present moment regarded as one of the way of passing the messages across to the persons who are intended to get the message.

This is a modernist movement, and started with poetry but has come to be part of the paintings. It has a typical trait, this is to present the world for a kind of subjective perspective, and it is seen to be radically distorting for emotional effect to provoke some ideas or the moods. The artists for this sought to pass a message or ‘express’ meaning or make people have emotional experience rather than having physical reality of what is happening. A person who uses this kind of communication and mostly in art develops a message before painting; for example, a painting of a person in an artistic impression may be wishing to send another side of the person rather than the commonly known stand of the person. Therefore, when communicating expressionists evokes some meaning in persons who are viewing it or makes a person think about the other sides of what is being portrayed in general sense.

Impressionism. Just like the previous discussion of the 19th century; the romanticism and expressionism, impressionism has some form of communication for itself. Impressionism came in the 19th century and began as a kind of loose association with Paris based artists. However, this was then to spread across to have a major impact in the world. Some of the characteristics of paintings done using the impressionism art movement are like being small, thin but above all, it is visible to anyone who may be interested in understanding this kind of art. It has an open kind of composition, visible brush strokes and emphasis keenly on the accuracy of the depiction of the light in its changing characteristics or qualities; and often these are accentuation of the effects of their passage of time. This movement was included as part of the art in the 19th century to bring in some elements of human experience and human perception and it is noted that this has some unusual visual angles.

The emergence of the impressionism in the visual arts and this was soon followed by analogous movements in other media, these were to come to be known as impressionist literature, and when this is connected to music, it was known as impressionist music. Impressionism also describes the art that is created outside the 19th century time, where the early impressionists broke the rules that were set for academic form of painting. They actually began by creating or giving colors as well as shades to the pictures by use of free brushing. They took painting out of the studio to give it to the modern world, and even in the present world, this kind of painting has been taken as the way to go in regard to painting.

Famous Painters of the 19th Century. The 19th century is characterized by people who know what art is on mostly painting; and in this discussion the focus is on how some of the well-known artists made art evolve to have what the present world has. According to Bracket (7), the painters of the 19th century are kind of people who understood what people needed when it comes to painting and generally, they brought in some kind of aestheticism. In an earlier discussion, aestheticism was put under romanticism, and everybody would appreciate that romanticism is one of the best way of communicating through the intended messages. Painting as one of the communication has to take the aesthetic value and cannot ignore that a boring attitude in any kind of communication cannot communicate through, as it may be needed. That is why art had also to embrace this sense, and true to it, they had to embrace and what we have today is a dedicated form of art that has taken ages to develop.

Bracket (7) adds that in the European countries, the supporters of this aestheticism have included the pre-Raphaelite painters as well as the poets of the calibers of Dante Gabriele Rossetti and other literary critics such as Walter Pater. Some of the famous painters of the 19th century include; Martin Johnson Heade (1818-1904), Adolphe William Bouguereau (1825-1905), Albert Bierstadt (1830-1917), Edgar Degas (1834-1917), Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836-1912), Thomas Moran (1837-1926) and Paul Cezanne (1839-1906). These people can be said to be the masterminds of what is known as the modern kind of art and mainly in painting.

Comparison of 18th and 19th Century Paintings. Painting is a genre and more so for the portrait painting, and this is where the intent of depicting visual appearances of the subject are portrayed and besides the human beings, the animals and pets; other inanimate objects that are used for this. From the above discussion, it is noted that the 19th century has formed the benchmark for the present kind of painting; however, the 19th century painting has borrowed extensively from the 18th century paintings. It is in the 18th century that a number of the British writers began to define as well as categorize the human responses on natural phenomena and since it has been noted earlier that the painting of the 19th century takes mostly the human nature of doing things, it makes the 18th century as the benchmark of this thinking. The landscape panting that was noted in Britain was affected by some of the theories of the 18th century and even the aesthetic value theory of the 18th century was to become as a major reference in the 19th century paintings.

George Romney (1734-1802) is one of the celebrated people when it comes to painting and he was apprenticed by his father into strolling portrait painting, which was named as Steele. From the year 1757-1762, Romney practiced a lot of independent painting when in Kendal and he had a lot of painting going on. He was later to set to London when he was to take his fame and talent as well as fortune about his painting. There are other figurative painters of the 18th century, and the name figurative here means that as early as the 18th century, there was aestheticism in painting as discussed in romanticism in painting. These examples are like Reynolds and Gainsborough and these were to make painting to be one of the ways of expressing a kind of aesthetic message to the world. The 19th century painting borrowed from this, and what the world has now is a kind of painting that has romance or has a lot of appreciation from the people. Francis Cotes, Tilly Kettle and Joseph Wright are other people who are known to have revolutionized the kind of painting that was to be known to belong to the 19th century. These persons belong to the 18th century, and since then what they were doing was more or less similar to what was happening in the 19th century and to some extent the 20th and 21st century. For example, Francis Cotes (1725-1770) is one of the persons who are known to have made painting become what it is today, and more so bringing in a high sense of quality. In summary, the painting of the 18th century is more or less like the paintings of the 19th century to make the two centuries most important when it comes to the history of paintings.

Comparison of 19th Century and 20th Century Painting. In the discussion of the persons who have histories for themselves in the 19th century; it was noted that the likes of Martin Johnson Heade and Adolphe William Bouguereau have made great strides to bring good impacts in painting, and in essence, they are the people who have made painting be what it is today. In the 19th century, one of the discussions was on the way the paintings became impressionist. In the 20th century, what is there is the postimpressionism. This means that what was in the 19th century was carried to the 20th century and some of the people who have practiced this are like George Seurat, Paul Gauguin and Paul Cezanne as the people who have had enormous impact on the 20th century art and painting to be specific. It becomes imperative that the 19th century painting was translated to the 20th century painting and if there are major developments on these, they are to be attributed to the painters of the 19th century. What is in the 20th century is some multi-colored, wild and expressive landscape as well as figurative paintings, and taking the figurative in painting means that it is a kind of painting that has been carried all the way from the 18th century to the 19th century and eventually to the 20th century.


Art is one of the most celebrated ways of communication, and a painter comes out as an effective communicator in one way or another. Therefore, painting as a form of art and communication is one of the ways that people cannot do without in the world, and essentially, it forms the benchmark to effective communication. Painters of the classical, middle and modern centuries have evolved to become celebrated persons; for example, a painter such as Vincent Van Gogh of the 20th century has immense mention when it comes to the history of painting. In this paper, the discussion has centered on the painting of the 19th century, the persons who have made history in this painting as well as the comparisons between the paintings of the 19th century against that of the 18th century and the painting of the 19th century against the kind of painting that took place in the 20th century. However, what can be noted is that there has been a kind of transition from the 18th century to the 19th century and eventually to the 20th century. As well, it can be imagined that the painting of the 21st century or the modern century has taken the shape of what happened in the 20th century and therefore providing the link from the 18th century.

Works Cited

Bracket, Virginia. Beginnings through the 19th Century. New York: Facts on File, Inc, 2006



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