Public Health

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Part 1: Public Health: Case

Good health and well being is one of the most essential things for a human being. Under the United States Constitution, the health and well of the American citizens has always been taken as a function of government and the state (McKinaly & Marceau, 2000). Therefore, it is important to understand the public health functions, which have been delegated to local health departments. Having visited a Provincial Health Department website and some two other local health websites, we found that there are a number of jurisdictions having clear missions. The missions noted had similar ideology, that is, to provide the best health care for all the people.

Another important thing is about emergency preparedness. Since most of the diseases that will attack man today will tend to be unpredictable, some relative emergency preparedness mechanisms had been addressed in these websites. For instance, there is the use of Incidence Command Systems, which are linked with intensive Decision Support Systems. Once a disease like SARS, some biological weapons, known as bioterrorism, or Pandemic Flu has been reported, there is an instant summoning of medical personnel who come in immediately to offer the necessary prevention measures. Victims are taken for examination in order to counteract the disease before getting out of hand. This ensures that all researchers who are experts are called to come up with laboratory tests and come up with treatment and preventive measures. There are toll free numbers provided in ensuring that the citizens can communicate the relevant information once a given disease has been reported (Avery, 2009).

The three sites visited presented similar mechanisms for addressing immunizations for adults and children. For instance, the sites advocate that all children have to pass through all immunization stages for polio, tuberculosis, measles, and so on. However, should there be some disease outbreak information will be quickly posted in the website so that the relevant people can avail themselves for immunization. With the State Health Department Center, it has been noted that some of these immunizations will be provided free of charge with the governments support (McKinaly & Marceau, 2000). In my opinion, I will agree that almost all the major important services have been addressed in these centers.

However, with the State Department, it appears that services are not given the way they should as with the other two centers that are near to the public, despite the fact that they may not have all the necessary equipments and facilities. This means that private practices will more often than not provide the clients with the best care as with the State Health Centers. From the websites visited, there was no kind of assessment that had been done lately on public health problems. However, the reason for this is that the departments have a calendar, which operates in June-July in assessing any kind of health problems affecting the public. In addition, this can be done once there has been some kind of outbreak that has been reported in a given area (Hobson, 2007).

Part 2 SLP

From module one, we note that there are responsibilities that have been given to the state, municipality, county and local public health departments related to this issue. Generally, the state departments have to make sure they provide the best health care to the people, and at the same time make sure that they give the necessary support to the public in case of any disease outbreak. State government departments are offered in the given state (McKinaly & Marceau, 2000). The major services that are given to the public include regulation of health services, health facilities, planning, and in development. There are also measures of controlling communicable diseases, immunizations, sanitation, and water quality.

The state health department will as well ensure proper waste management and disposal. There is as well the provision for laboratory examinations and relevant services, there is screening for chronic diseases, and dental health services, and radiation control. Mental health services have also been vital in this state hospital but it has been not functioning properly over the past few years. This means that there should be measures of ensuring all the necessary services are provided to the clients in a competent manner. Other state agencies have major responsibilities in a variety of areas related to public health (Stoto & Abel, 1996). For example, this state has been found to have programs for regulating pesticides, shellfishes, school safety, rabies, and highway safety.

About the Local Health Departments, LHD, they have traditionally carried the major burden in committing public health services and activities. The major reason here is that they are in constant contact with the public hence providing the government’s services to the highest number of people. The major services offered therefore include environmental health, hazardous waste disposal, food safety and protection, nuisance control measures, sanitation, immunizations, STDs and TB clinics, dental health, family planning, and a number of disease screening programs (McKinaly & Marceau, 2000).








Module 3

Advancing Community Health

Core functions addressed: In the article ‘public health law in a new century’ by Gostin, he addresses a number of Public Health core functions. The major core public health functions that have been described by Gostin here include Assessment, Policy Development, and Assurance. These functions have been described in the manner described as follows:

When it comes to Assessment, there is collecting, analyzing, disseminating, and monitoring health status information in order to identify the physical environmental and mental health issues. The major barriers that have been identified include gaps in the health care (Gostin, 2000). This means that these should be addressed competently in order to realize public health missions. There should as well be measures of evaluating the effectiveness of the system, the accessibility, as well as the quality of the people and the entire population for better health services.

The second function addressed is Policy Development. During policy development, there should be the full definition of the priorities for public health responses that have been identified with the first function. There should as well be effective methods in research in order to promote, prevent, and improve all mental, physical, and environmental health of the people (Gostin, 2000). The next measure will involve the development of plans and policies that will ensure there is mental, physical, as well as environmental well being and health that has been designed in meeting all the needs as based on the research. Finally, it is necessary to advocate for better public health provision (Stoto & Abel, 1996).

The above function leads us to the third one, which is the question of Assurance. This will see to it that there is the promotion of the health and safety in terms of the environment, mind and human physical bodies. There should also be the prevention of diseases, injuries and any other forms of disability. There should be ways of diagnosing and investigating any physical, environmental and mental health hazards and problems through using technical epidemiology. The health care plan should be able to educate all the people and provide them which ways of having better health care on how they can as well improve their living conditions. There should be the enforcement of regulations and laws so that we can effectively protect the physical, mental and environmental safety and health of the public (Gostin, 2000). There will as well be the provision of better care and services to all the people.

Author’s Position: from these functions that have been analysed properly by Gostin, I extremely find them applicable and will result in the best health care once they have been applied. Therefore, the wake up call should go to the government in implementing the appropriate laws and regulations in order to ensure all these functions existing in a sober manner. In addition, there is the need for the government to provide the necessary finances in order to ensure that these functions are instilled in a sober manner.


Background: Core Functions of Public Health

In this section, I address the three functions: Assessment: during assessment, there is a number of information that is gathered. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention have been identified as the major organs for coming up with assessment in the country. These practices will be deemed quite essential since they have to be done in ensuring there is proper health practice in the country’s hospitals. A number of processes, practices and eventual outcomes have marred the essential public healthcare practices. During the assessment, the kind of information gathered include the health status of different community health problems, come up with data to show the various diseases that have been affecting the people in different areas, and identify the major causes of these diseases and other complications. There has also been the diagnosis and investigation of health problems and health hazards that may be prevailing in the community. As well, there have been studies and assessment on environmental conditions, waste management and sanitation. The assessment will more often than not be biased on the status of all general health parameters (Cipolla, 2005). Once this information has been gathered, it will be effectively used in addressing the needs of the people in terms of public health. The various health indicators are analysed, the incidence of control, and the prevalence of commonplace diseases.

In terms of policies, there has been the integration of surveillance systems in order to ensure any kind of threat to the public health is addressed with a sense of immediacy (Bayer, 2009). A number or laws and policies have been put in place in ensuring that everything is handled in a proper manner. There are preventive measures for any kind of communicable or non-communicable infections and diseases. There are also monitoring measures for the different health situations. In addition, health promotions are also held. In order to ensure the environment is preserved, there are policies that protect the environment by ensuring that proper waste disposal is done. The public regulations and legislations have been effective in realizing the goals of different health care centers. In short, these policies have been put in place to ensure that the goals and objectives are realized in the very end (Chin, 2000). The major policies that may be instilled will be biased laws and regulations so that all relevant issues in the sector are put in place so that there will be eventual provision of better services to the public.

When it comes to assurance, there are a number of health promotions done in the centers for proper public health. These promotions include free medical check-ups and monitoring to ensure stability in the health of the population. In order to ensure there is quality for all the related services, there is frequent monitoring which ensures that the facilities, relationships and services are done in a competent manner. There is also the monitoring and testing of health care tools and drugs to ensure that they are not harmful to the patients. There are ways in diagnosing and investigating the physical, environmental and mental health hazards and problems through using technical epidemiology. The health care plan has also been able to educate all the people and provide them with ways of having better health care on how they can improve their living conditions.
















Module 4

PART 1: Healthy People 2010

One of the major goals for Healthy People 2010 is to reduce the health disparities that have been in the United States of America. Over the past few years, different people have been having different medical attention depending on race and social class. This has been what many experts will call ‘Health Disparities’. This disparity will occur when some groups of people have access to appropriate medical care and attention as compared to the majority who have no medical covers, insurance or any form of medical plans. Healthy People 2010 became the proper agenda in limiting and doing away with the disparity. There have been a number of differences in the country between different racial groups when it comes to health indicators. The whites have been entitled to full medical cover, something that is not provided to majority of the African Americans (Koplan, 2009).

These differences have occurred in insurance policies and medical provisions in the states hospital centers. The major causes for these differences have been due to education status, the overdue ethnicity and apartheid that have been dying slowly by slowly, and the socio-economic positions of the individuals in the different racial groups. However, there are ways through which we can competently have good and improved health care for the populations that have been under-served. As with the Obama administration has been doing, it would be appropriate that the country comes up with legislations that will see all the people having appropriate medical cover and attention. The government can as well provide some better health facilities that will serve all the people on equal basis in the entire country (Cipolla, 2005). This will finally see the underserved population getting the necessary medical attention. It will competently bring the best health for the 2010 generation.

PART 2 SLP: Focus Areas of Healthy People 2010

In the 1970s, a number of representatives from a number of scientific organizations and public health started to develop a strategy for a national health promotion and prevention of disease objectives. This was a national consensus and a strategy that had been pioneered by the government, public organizations, and the citizens (Eastman, 2000). In Healthy People 2000, the major objectives were to achieve the national goals in terms of health. In that case, four major areas were to be addressed: health promotions, protection of public health, prevention health services, and surveillance and data systems. Each of the four areas was noted to present the exact health status and some ways through which the health risks could be reduced. These measures would be aimed for all ages in the population. In order to achieve health promotion, there was the encouragement for physical fitness and exercise, reduction in tobacco use, substance abuse, better family planning and good behavior. All these would be attained through enhanced community educational programs (Koplan, 2009).

In order to have proper health protection, there was the issue of giving protection, warning people against any occupational health related issues, ensuring safety with foods and any kind of drugs. In terms of prevention services, there was the need to come up with maternal and infant care, addressing issues of sexually transmitted infections, and immunization for all communicable as well as infectious diseases (Koplan, 2009). This would then result in the healthy people 2010. This would incorporate data systems and surveillance (Turnock, 2009). The healthy people 2000 would be updated to the 2010 goals. This would involve the improving of the qualities and healthy lives of the people, and as well eliminate all the disparities in health as stated above. This would result in improved access to health care and services. All harmful diseases such as cancer, kidney infections, diabetes, and family planning issues would be addressed. In addition, there would be safety measures in ensuring that all foodstuffs and other materials supplied to the consumer remained healthy.

There would also be measuring of educating the public so that they can take the necessary preventive measures in ensuring that some of the problems and issues that may affect their health are addressed immediately. Many health experts have argued that the areas of focus have been elevated to 28. These include all the relevant health issues that have been facing the people of the country. There is also the inclusion of indicators that will also be used in tracking the progression of the document towards the provision of better health care to the people (Spencer & Alicia, 2004). Healthy people 2010, is also known to list the 10-leading indicator that will reflect all the health concerns in the country. These have been intended to help all the people in the country to be in a position of understanding the importance of better health and promotion as well as with disease prevention. The ten issues mentioned include physical activities, overweight issues and obesity, tobacco usage, substance abuse, responsibility with sexual behaviors, mental health, injuries and violence, quality of the environmental, immunization and appropriate health care in the country.









Module 5

Part 1 Case: Health in Developing countries

Public health priorities will tend to change significantly between different societies and regions in the globe. Majority of the third world countries have been faced with a number of problems that are associated with diseases that are infectious, injuries, family planning, migrations, and rural to urban shifts. Because of these issues, there will be problems of infections, malnutrition, population growth, and issues of sanitations, hence posing a number of health problems (Avery, 2009). Illiteracy, culture, and significant environmental issues have further influenced the occurrences of these problems.

My focus country here is Somali. This country lies at the Horn of Africa and has been lacking a stable government for over the last two decades. Because of this, the people have been living in absolute poverty, clashes, insecurity and varied religious beliefs. Over the two decades, the country has never had a stable government. For a number of occasions, the UN and United States have been sending troops to bring peace, but that has never been achieved. Due to the growing desperation in the country, many people have been turning for piracy on the busy Indian Ocean. Because of these facts, there have been issues to do with poor health facilities and provision in the country (Frumkin, 2004).

Generally, over 93 percent of the population has no access to health facilities, the remaining percentage cannot access proper care in the country and so they have to travel or link with other nations where they can get their medical cover.  In addition, majority of the people live in poverty and in fear due to fights between the government and rebels. There are a number of categories that will be needed if this country has to provide the best health care for its people. There should be the enhancement of the government support to all the affairs of the nation. Once there has been the establishment of a stable government, then the issue and question of healthcare can be spoken about.

Starting with immunization, it is quite clear that majority of the new born children here do not get immunized. It should be necessary that this issue be addressed even if it means having the WHO bringing its personnel in the country. There should be measures in having proper environmental protection since 84 percent of the land here is arid. Without proper environment that can sustain human existence, health complications will always be reported. The issue of proper diet should also be given priority. This is because without proper food intake, the body’s immunity will be greatly compromised (Cipolla, 2005).

Just to conclude, there should be proper health protection, which will ensure all the people in this country are free from any kind of harm. There should be the integration of ways through which people will be warned against any kind of occupational health related issues and hazards, ensuring there is safety with foodstuffs and any other kind of drugs made available to the people. In terms of prevention services, there is the need to come up with maternal and infant care, addressing issues of sexually transmitted infections, and having immunization for all communicable as well as infectious diseases (Cipolla, 2005). There should also be incorporation of surveillance systems, which will ensure there is enough monitoring of the health situations. This will ensure there is increased healthcare and by so doing improving the quality and health of the people. In addition, all harmful diseases like cancer, diabetes, and family planning issues should be addressed keenly by any NGO that takes the mandate to improve the lives of the people here.


Background: In this study, I will address HIV/Aids as one of the major Public Health issues affecting man today. Today, the world is at a crucial stage in history. This has been caused by HIV/AIDS. With the important message from the World Health Report, it is reported that the international community now has its final chance in changing all the perceptions about the problems in order to have better health for all people (Satcher, 2000). Dealing with the condition has become one of the world’s greatest challenges. This disease has been killing very many people over the last years; over forty million people have been infected with the disease. The fact of the matter is that today the disease has no cure or vaccine. From the World Health Report 2004 – Changing History, which was published by the WHO called for a comprehensive strategy for HIV/AIDS. This would bring about prevention, treatment measures, care for those affected by the disease.

WHO and the related partners declared the globe needed to come to terms and find a cure for the disease. This should be done without looking at the economic, political and socio-cultural differences existing among races in the world (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009). Generally, there has been the provision of some alternative medicine known as Anti-Retrovirals, ARVs, which boost the body’s immunity. Although the planning and laboratory facilities for the disease have somehow been effective, it is quite true that a number of societies and the developing world have never had the access to the facilities due to unaccommodating economic situations (McKinaly & Marceau, 2000). In order to address this issue in a competent manner, it would be appropriate that we come up with measures of having more and more researches in order to ensure a permanent solution is provided. People should also be sensitized so that they do not indulge in unsafe behaviours, which may result in increased rates of infections. These changes would be appropriate in addressing the problem in both the developed and the developing world.


Module 6

PART 1: Reflective Essay

From this study, I have been able to improve my knowledge in the field of public health. This has given me ability on how I can address health issues and bringing better reforms, which can ensure there is improved care for the population. This study has also shed some light on how different nations can be helped to solve their health issues and having appropriate health care measures and reforms. In addition, all the topics studied were properly understood during the study. However, there should be the provision of more relevant data so that students or learners can have varied views on the subject so that better suggestions can be made on the topic of study. With these studies, it will be realised that future plans may integrate these findings and come up with measures of ensuring there are improvements in the health sectors. From this study, I have been able to mean my objectives (Satcher, 2000). The course objectives were to examine the exact meaning and the significance of public health in the United States and the world as well. I was also able to give a description and an analysis of Public Health in the United States in module two. In the third module I was able to review and give a comparison of the core functions and essential health services. All the major objectives for the study were met.






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