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The following essay is a sample paper for an essay on DNS. It should not be used as a ready paper for your assignment as it is already in our website. In case you want an original paper on the same topic please order for the essay at our site and our able writers will work on it from the scratch.
DNS is an internet’s name domain service; equipment that converts website names and email addresses to internal numbers that are used to direct the bytes to their right places. It has brought many controversies in the field of information technology as many people suggest that it needs to be revised and regulated. DNS is like a database that is used to route addresses that have been typed on the internet to reveal the main server. It translates the name to an IP address, which is required for all traffics on the internet. The computer may fail to connect the address directly and therefore require another PC at the ISP to do the work (Kozierok, 2005). The computer that is assigned to do such work is installed with software that has all the possible IP addressees. These root servers are located in various parts of the world and mainly copy their materials from a master server. Master servers do not have a lot of information; they mainly provide information on where certain domains like .org, .com, .uk and the rest can be located.
The issue however arises if individuals get disappointed about how the master ICANN operates. It can simply be done away by shifting to software that can provide location of the addresses. It is discovered that DNS has gained its popularity especially when the internet technology was launched (Larson, 2003). Many people became excited about it and accepted it as a master supplier. Solutions can however be found if the ICANN is split. Through splitting, functions will be allocated to different managers who will determine its management procedures and subsequently lead to quality production.
The DNS namespace
A proper name resolution is required for effective operation of windows; it enables users to locate needed resources on the network. Its design is created by considering an active directory that is available on the internet and care taken to ensure that it is not conflicting with the internal organizations namespace (Kozierok, 2005). Names that have already been used can be checked on appropriate website and a unique one designed. When more than two names are used for the address, the systems using the names may not function and thus interrupting organizational operations.
Concerning IP address assignment
When assigning an IP address, an individual that desires a certain kind of address will have to find out the range from which his or her network falls. Once this is established, certain addresses may be tried to establish if a connection is identified (Bates, 2007). There are however several setbacks that may come with such kind of addressing method. A correct address range may not be easy to establish and if it is established it may be one that has already been assigned and thus paralyzing both users.
The 80/20 rule with respect to DHCP
The 80/20 rule is usually used to balance DHCP server usage to prevent any duplication of IP addresses. The DHCP works through two servers; one that is configured to lease an average of twenty percent and the other one to lease eighty percent (Larson, 2003). One server is most commonly used to respond to the address requests of individuals and the other one serves as a substitute that will be used when the other one is not active.
IP addresses to be assigned manually
IPnumbers are usually assigned to computers through numbers on a network; the address has thirty-two bits (Bates, 2007). The bits are divided into two halves where by one identifies the network and the other one to identify the host computer. IP addresses that form the first half are usually referred to as the subnets which are further divided into three classes, A, B and C.
Subneting is a process that is used to assign IP addresses in a given network. To enhance the subnetting process, subnet masks are used to find out the number of bits that should be utilized. Subnetting is preferred due to the fact that it simplifies the routing process. Subnetting also covers internal network numbers by revealing the main numbers to the router (Kozierok, 2005). The flow of data is also enhanced due to the shorter routing tables that are enabled through subnetting. Through subnetting, the IP system becomes centralized and thus making it easy for network administrators to assign IP numbers according to the different departments in the organization. Larger networks can be divided into smaller networks, which enhance the management process.
IP address classes are mainly divided into three categories namely A, B and C. addresses of class A are specified to a network that has a large number of hosts. It allows 126 networks that are set by using the first octet of the network ID which is fixed to zero and the rest fixed to one (Bates, 2007). The other 24 bits allow 126 networks that are able to serve 17 million hosts. Addresses of class B serve medium to large sized networks; it allows 16,384 networks using first two network IDs. Numbers in this class begin from 128 to 191. Addresses of class C are used for small local area networks and allow for about two million networks using the first three octets. Number values in this octet begin from 192 and end at 223.
How default subnet masks are determined
Default subnet masks are determined from a subnetted class of A, B or C and happens when the host ID is divided so that zero bits are used for the subnet ID and the other bits used for the host ID (Kozierok, 2005). Default subnet masks usually have 255s or 0s whenever they are expressed in decimal points. 255.0.0.0 Is a representation if class A, 255.255.0.0 a representation for class B, and finally 255.255.255.0 is a representation for class C default subnets.
Two methods of conserving IP addresses
Two methods used to conserve IP addresses include Windows CIR and windows DHCP. DHCP is an internet track protocol that enables a server of a TCP/IP network to supply the message of configuration to clients. DHCP supports three mechanisms for IP address allocations that include automatic allocation, dynamic allocation and manual allocation. DHCP is a tool that is used to temporarily assign addresses to clients that are not using a permanent connection. Classless inter-domain routing (CIR) is also a method that is used to conserve IP addresses (Larson, 2003). It allows for a network to be assigned to a sub-class C address. It generally means that a single class C network can be used to share several small networks.
Bates, R. (2007): Voice & data communications handbook: New York: McGraw-Hill Professional.
Kozierok, C. (2005): The TCP/IP guide: San Francisco: No Starch Press.
Larson, M. (2003): DNS on Windows Server 2003. Gravenstein: O'Reilly.